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Distinctive Features of Public Speaking (Purpose)

People seldom speak in public unless they have some purpose in mind something they wish to accomplish. A purpose can be complex, privet, and psychological. With respect to the public work performed by public speaking, scholars called reroricians have been working to identify major types of purposes for over two thousand years. Aristotle, who lived about 2,400 years ago, near the end of a great era of civilization called the Golden age of Greece, divided purposes into three forms: forensic, deliberative, and ceremonial. The forensic purpose, enacted in speeches before the Athenian courts, satisfied the needs of the justice system. These speeches were concerned largely with past events and with the guilt and innocence of individuals. The deliberative purpose was fulfilled in speeches before the assembly dealing with the formation of public policy. How the future might be shaped and controlled was the business of such speeches. The ceremonial purpose was satisfied by speeches that celebrated what it meant to be an Athenian-an equivalent modern form might be a Fourth of July oration.

By identifying three basic forms of purpose: speeches that inform listeners, speeches that persuade them, and ceremonial speeches given on special occasions. To help you form your purpose-to find and develop an appropriate topic and theme for your speech-we offer suggestions.

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Seven Methods that can be used to Gain Attention in an Introduction

1.One method of gaining attention is to relate the topic to the audience.

a.People pay attention to things that affect them directly.
b.No matter what other interest-arousing lures a speaker uses, she or he should always relate the topic to the audience.

2.A second method of gaining attention is to state the importance of the topic.

a.An audience is not likely to be interested in a topic they regard as unimportant.
b.Whenever a speaker discusses a topic whose importance may to demonstrate its importance in the introduction.

3.A third method of gaining attention is to startle the audience.

a.This method can be highly effective.
b.It is important, that the startling material be directly related to the speech.

4.A fourth method of gaining attention is to arouse the curiosity of the audience.

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A Speech Conclusion Has Two Primary Functions.

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1. Abrupt ending leave listeners surprised and unfulfilled.

2. One way to signal the end of a speech is with a brief verbal cur such as “In conclusion” or “One last thought.”

3. Another way to signal the end is by the speaker’s manner of delivery.

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b.In a dissolve ending, the final words fade like a spotlight on a concert singer, bringing the speech to an emotional close.

B. The second function of a conclusion is to reinforce the audience’s understanding of or Commitment to the central idea of the speech.

1. There are four methods of accomplishing this.
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b. A second method is to conclude with a quotation.

c. A third method is to end with a dramatic statement.
d. A fourth method is to refer back to the introduction of the speech.
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The four objectives of a speech introduction

A. The first objective is to gain the attention and interest of the audience.

B. The second objective of a speech introduction is to reveal the topic of the speech.

C. The third objectives of a speech introduction is to establish the credibility and good will of the speaker.

D. The fourth objective of a speech introduction is to preview the body of the speech.