The four objectives of a speech introduction

A. The first objective is to gain the attention and interest of the audience.

B. The second objective of a speech introduction is to reveal the topic of the speech.

C. The third objectives of a speech introduction is to establish the credibility and good will of the speaker.

D. The fourth objective of a speech introduction is to preview the body of the speech.

Seven Methods that can be used to Gain Attention in an Introduction


1.One method of gaining attention is to relate the topic to the audience.

a. People pay attention to things that affect them directly.
b. No matter what other interest-arousing lures a speaker uses, she or he should always relate the topic to the audience.

2. A second method of gaining attention is to state the importance of the topic.

a. An audience is not likely to be interested in a topic they regard as unimportant.
b. Whenever a speaker discusses a topic whose importance may to demonstrate its importance in the introduction.

3. A third method of gaining attention is to startle the audience.

a. This method can be highly effective.
b. It is important, that the startling material be directly related to the speech.

4. A fourth method of gaining attention is to arouse the curiosity of the audience.

a. People are curious.
b. Their interest can be engaged with a series of statements that whet their curiosity about the subject of the speech.


5. A fifth method of gaining attention is to question the audience.

a. A speaker can use either a single question or a series of questions.
b. The question or questions should be firmly related to the content of the speech.

6. A sixth method of gaining attention is to begin with a quotation.

a. A well-chosen quotation can add depth, human interest, or humor to an introduction.
b. The quotation will be most effective if it is no longer than a sentence or two.

7. A seventh method of gaining attention is to tell a story.

a. Because all people enjoy stories, this may be the most effective method of beginning a speech.
b. For this method to work, the story must be delivered well.

8. Other methods of gaining attention include referring to the occasion, inviting audience participation, using audio equipment or visual aids, relating to a previous speaker, and beginning with humor.

a. All of these methods can be effective depending on the audience, the topic, and the occasion.
b. Unlike the first seven methods of gaining attention, these additional methods are used more frequently in speeches outside the classroom.

Five Tips For Preparing an Effective Introduction

A. The introduction should usually be relatively brief.

B. Speakers should keep an eye out for potential introductory material as they research the speech.

C. Speakers should be creative when devising their introductions.

D. Speakers should not be concerned with the exact wording of the introduction until the body of the speech is finished.

E. The introduction should be worked out in detail so it can be delivered effectively.

The Major Functions of a Speech Conclusion.

There are four tips for preparing an effective conclusion

A. Speakers should keep an eye out for potential concluding materials as they research the speech.

B. Speakers should conclude with a bang instead of a whimper.

C. Speakers should not be long-winded in the conclusion.

D. Speakers should prepare the content and delivery of their conclusions with special care.

A Speech Conclusion Has Two Primary Functions.

A. The first function is to signal the end of the speech.

1. Abrupt ending leave listeners surprised and unfulfilled.

2. One way to signal the end of a speech is with a brief verbal cur such as “In conclusion” or “One last thought.”

3. Another way to signal the end is by the speaker’s manner of delivery.

a. In a crescendo ending, the speech builds in force until it reaches a zenith of power and intensity.

b.In a dissolve ending, the final words fade like a spotlight on a concert singer, bringing the speech to an emotional close.

B. The second function of a conclusion is to reinforce the audience’s understanding of or Commitment to the central idea of the speech.

1. There are four methods of accomplishing this.

a. One method is to summarize the main points of the speech.

b. A second method is to conclude with a quotation.

c. A third method is to end with a dramatic statement.

d. A fourth method is to refer back to the introduction of the speech.

2. These methods can be used separately or in combination to create an effective conclusion.

Public Speaking as Expanded Conversation

Public speaking retains three important characteristics of good conversation.First it preserves the natural directness and spontaneity of informal talk. Second, it is colorful. And third, it is tuned to the reactions of listeners.

Public Speaking Preserves Conversational Directness and Spontaneity.

Even though a speech has been carefully researched, thoughtfully prepared, and well rehearsed, it should sound conversational and spontaneous as it comes to life before an audience. Those words bear repeating; a speech comes to life before an audience. Consider the following opening to a self-introductory speech:

It may seem hot here today, but it’s not near as hot as Dhaka, Bangladesh, where I was born and reared. I almost said “roasted.” John has just told us about the joys of urban living. Now you’re going to hear about what you might call a “country-fried” lifestyle.

Compare that opening with

My name is Rashadul Islam, and I come from Dhaka, Bangladesh.

The first version seems fresh and spontaneous. The “us” and “you,” along with the casual humorous remarks, suggest that the speaker is reaching out to his audience. The second, unless presented with a great deal of oomph, will sound quite ordinary. The first opening invites listening; the second invites yawning.

Public Speaking Is Colorful and Compelling. We enjoy talking with good conversationalists often because their speech is colorful. Consider the following development of the “heat” theme from the above example:

That place was so hot it would make an armadillo sweat! It was so hot that rattlesnakes would rattle just to fan themselves!

Compare those words with the following:

The average summer day in Dhaka was often over a hundred degrees.

The literal meaning of both statements is not that different, but the first contains the kind of vivid conversational qualities that listeners usually enjoy.

Public Speaking Is Tuned to Listeners. Like a good conversation, a good public speech is tuned to listeners. As you converse with people in social situations, you learn to monitor their reactions. If they look confused, you try to explain yourself more clearly. You may even give an example or tell a story. If they frown, you may rephrase an idea or present evidence that supports your views. If they smile or nod, you may feel you have the green light to develop your thoughts.

If good conversations are interactive and audience centered, effective speeches are even more so. Speakers must be constantly aware of the reactions of listeners and make on-the-spot adjustments. But from the very beginning, a speech must be planned with the audience in mind. Your entire speech should be designed to answer the questions that audiences will instinctively ask:

  • Why should I be interested in this topic?
  • What do you mean?
  • How do I know this is true?
  • What can I do about it?

You must give listeners a reason to be interested in the introduction of your speech or you will lose them before you ever get started. Your speech must be clearly organize and your language simple and direct so listeners can understand what you mean. You must provide facts and fingers, examples, ad expert testimony to demonstrate the truth of your statements. If your speech is persuasive, you must give listeners clear directions concerning what they should believe or do.

It seems clear that public speaking – far from being a mysterious skill – is a natural expansion and application of an ability we develop from our earliest years. On the other hand, some features make public speaking distinctive.

The four objectives of a speech introduction

A. The first objective is to gain the attention and interest of the audience. B. The second objective of a speech introduction is to re...