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Distinctive Features of Public Speaking (Medium)

The medium transmits a speaker’s message. When public speaking takes place in a direct, face-to-face encounter, the medium is the air through which the sound travels. When a speech is presented outside or in a large auditorium, a microphone and amplifiers may be part of the medium. We tend to take the medium for granted until we discover something wrong with it, like poor acoustics. Public speeches can also be transmitted through the electronic media of radio, television, and video-or-audiotapes.

The electronic media have major effects on the entire communication process. For example, radio emphasizes the attractiveness, clarity, and expressiveness of a speaker’s voice. Television brings a speaker into a close relationship with viewers, so personality and physical appearance take on added importance. When speakers want news coverage, they must compress important ideas into twenty-second sound bites, and the language must be immediately clear and colorful. Any change in the medium can complicate the speaker’s job.


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Seven Methods that can be used to Gain Attention in an Introduction

1.One method of gaining attention is to relate the topic to the audience.

a.People pay attention to things that affect them directly.
b.No matter what other interest-arousing lures a speaker uses, she or he should always relate the topic to the audience.

2.A second method of gaining attention is to state the importance of the topic.

a.An audience is not likely to be interested in a topic they regard as unimportant.
b.Whenever a speaker discusses a topic whose importance may to demonstrate its importance in the introduction.

3.A third method of gaining attention is to startle the audience.

a.This method can be highly effective.
b.It is important, that the startling material be directly related to the speech.

4.A fourth method of gaining attention is to arouse the curiosity of the audience.

a.People are curious.
b.Their interest can be engaged with a series of statements that whet their cu…

A Speech Conclusion Has Two Primary Functions.

A. The first function is to signal the end of the speech.

1. Abrupt ending leave listeners surprised and unfulfilled.

2. One way to signal the end of a speech is with a brief verbal cur such as “In conclusion” or “One last thought.”

3. Another way to signal the end is by the speaker’s manner of delivery.

a. In a crescendo ending, the speech builds in force until it reaches a zenith of power and intensity.

b.In a dissolve ending, the final words fade like a spotlight on a concert singer, bringing the speech to an emotional close.

B. The second function of a conclusion is to reinforce the audience’s understanding of or Commitment to the central idea of the speech.

1. There are four methods of accomplishing this.
a. One method is to summarize the main points of the speech.
b. A second method is to conclude with a quotation.

c. A third method is to end with a dramatic statement.
d. A fourth method is to refer back to the introduction of the speech.
2. These methods can be u…

The four objectives of a speech introduction

A. The first objective is to gain the attention and interest of the audience.

B. The second objective of a speech introduction is to reveal the topic of the speech.

C. The third objectives of a speech introduction is to establish the credibility and good will of the speaker.

D. The fourth objective of a speech introduction is to preview the body of the speech.